CD Release date: 17th May 2006.

LOK 007 KLENENGAN Lokananta cassette ACD 002 KLENENGAN GOBYOB was issued on 4th September 1971
Keluarga Karawitan Studio RRI Surakarta director P Atmasunarto.

1. Ldr. Pangkur (molak - malik)  Slendro. Manyura

Pangkur is a very popular piece which can be performed in both slendro and pelog tuning systems and in different patet, changing from one to the other in a single performance, a practice known as molak-malik.  In this performance the change into Pelog Barang happens at 5.41 and the change back into Slendro Manyura occurs at 9.28. Typically, the text for the gerong follows the same text as the pesinden but for variety, and to avoid being likened to other pieces in ladrang form, on some occasions the pesinden sings pangkur while the gerong sings kinanti, as on this recording.  Pangkur can be performed in many different ways.

Ldr. Pangkur is based on the traditional Javanese song, macapat pangkur paripurna, composed by Raden Mas Haryo Tondo Kusuma during the reign of PB X and Mangkunegara IV. Pangkur is a ladrang which was based on the most famous macapat (Javanese sung poem) as it can be performed in a variety of tunings and patet, namely slendro sanga, slendro manyura, pelog nem, and pelog nyamat, all of which are pleasant to the ear, with the original version in slendro sanga.

Due to its popularity, many dances such as gambyong pangkur, tari kuda-kuda, and golek pangkur are performed to the music of ladrang pangkur. Even comic performances often begin with ladrang pangkur.

2. Ldr. Kapidondong  Pelog Nem

Kapidondong is also an unusual ladrang although its text uses kinanti.  However, whereas it is commonplace to begin the kinanti text after the first kenong, in the performance of ladrang kapidondong the text begins in the middle of the first kenong or at the kempul kosong.  In this case, the text should be finished by the kempul of the fourth kenong, and the solo pesinden will then continue to sing, indicating that the piece is in fact ladrang kapidondong.  Gending Kapidondong was composed by PB V.  It is often performed and alternated with salake play songs which were composed by PB X, the composer of many such pieces. The children’s play song kendhela occurs at 6.44 minutes in this rendition. It is difficult to discover the meaning of salake lorosigar but possibly the word salake comes from the salak fruit (snake fruit) and the word lorosigar may be interpreted as ‘half value’ or mediocre.  However, Javanese texts often have certain hidden meanings. The performance returns to Kapidondong at 7.30 minutes.

3. Sekar Gadung.  Slendro Manyura
Sekar Gadung is one of only a few gending in which the buka or introduction can be played on the gambang, even though in this version it is played on the rebab.

Sekar Gadung is probably quite a new composition, evident from the words in the text approaching the gong, which read ‘merdiko, merdiko salaminyo’ (freedom, freedom forever).  Possibly the text was written just before Indonesian independence or possibly sekar gadung was also composed at that time.  In any case, this is another unusual gending, as is kapidondong. 

Although the gerong text is kinanti, it begins in the middle of the first kenong and ends at the third kempul during the fourth kenong.  Subsequently, the solo pesinden sings the words ‘merdiko merdiko salaminyo’ and in this performance, the piece continues into Lebdosari.  Lebdosari was composed by Mangkunegara IV who composed many gending with distinctive or unusual features, such as the use of gerong in the ngelik section.  The text is not kinanti.

The text in Lebdosari mentions several different types of rice plant, such as sukanandi, dudongasak, and tapasaren, which were popular at the time. There are also other songs about types of mangos and bananas, such as raja, geligi, and ambon, and names of flowers, which Mangkunegara compiled into different gending, an example being sekar gadung continuing into Lebdosari.

4. Perkutut Manggung - Gondang-Gandung Pelog Barang.
Perkutut Manggung is a gending from the reign of PB IV.
Perkutut means a bird (a turtle dove) and Manggung describes a loud sound with an attractive melody

There is a special andegan in perkutut manggung if performed in the traditional way.  It is interesting that the text for Perkutut Manggung contains satirical allusions to the Dutch.  It states that the Dutch came to do trade but in addition they also took away the wealth of the Indonesian people whenever they pleased, ultimately coming to feel at home and not wanting to leave.  The Javanese instinct orders them to ‘return home, you have no sense of responsibility towards your family, as a parent you should feed your children, provide them with a spoonful of rice, there are no doctors, only masseurs, and if anything happens, you will pay the price’.

Perkutut manggung is a well-known piece which can be performed in both the slendro and pelog tuning.  In slendro it is performed in slendro manyura, in pelog it is performed in pelog barang.

To make the performance more interesting, it is interspersed with gondang gandung.

Gondang gandung is a kind of children’s food, made from corn which is fried and given different colourings.  This kind of snack is sold at wayang performances and children often refuse to leave until their parents have bought it for them.

5. Ldr. Mudatama  Slendro Sanga
Mudatama translates as a young soldier. Raden Tumenggung Aryo Wiryo Diningrat was the son-in-law of PB X.  He was a creative musician who composed and made popular the gending mudatama.

In this performance it continues into Bribil, a humorous gending.  Mudatama can be performed as a concert piece or to accompany a gambyong dance, in which gambyong mudatama is used.  Mudatama includes a vocal element known as senggaan which contains satire.  Bribil became more pleasant to listen to after a new text was made by Ki Nartosabdo.

Bribil Gondjol is a comic (gejul) gending using the text selasir.

The text contains satirical allusions to the Dutch

         The Dutchman has a tall, broad posture
He takes what he wants without stopping
He returns until he is satisfied

This piece was popular during the 1950s.
Ketoprak Tobong Mudatama is also used for humorous gambyong.
In this presentation Bribil occurs at about the 6.50 minute mark.while the Gondjol  rhythm used for the Petruk theme begins at about the 9.25 minute mark. Ketoprak Tobong Mudatama is also used for comical gambyong.

6. Budeng Budeng.  Pelog Nem.  (hesitant)
This piece was composed by Kanjeng Patih Sosro Diningrat during the reign of PBX. Budeng-Budeng is another gending which uses a special andegan with a long but beautiful melody. The text used usually describes a woman’s beauty but may also contain satirical allusions. In this performance the text mentions a beautiful woman who speaks sweetly, walks gracefully, and whatever she does is also alluring and interesting.

In terms of its musical content, the technique used is quite difficult, in particular during the first and second kenongs.  Budeng-budeng has the same meaning as arum-arum, and during the final andegan, ladrang arum-arum is mentioned. 


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